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The city of Adiyaman was built on the foot-hills of the south eastern Taurus mountains. The region consists mainly of plateau and is mountainous. The earth's surface is 7,614 square kilometers and lie 725 meters above mean sea level.  The settlements are where there are many lakes and rivers. Adiyaman is located in southeastern Turkey. It is 669 meters (2,200 feet) above sea level. It has an area of 7,614 square kilometers (roughly 3,000 square miles).   Adıyaman generally has very rough terrain. The land, which generally descends from north to south, is broken up by many deep gorges. Taurus mountains make up the northern border of the province, the river Euphrates the southern. There are many rivers and streams in the province that empty into the Euphrates. These include Kahta, Göksu, and Sofras rivers. There are three major lakes that are larger than1 square mile. These are Gölbaşı, Azaplı, and Abdülharap lakes. The artificial lake created by the Atatürk Dam, is hundreds of square miles.


        The southeast foothills of the Taurus mountains form the biggest part of the landscape in the region (they dominate the landscape of the region). The foothills of the Taurus mountain in Adiyaman are known as the Malatya mountains. They increase towards the north. The district of Celikhan lies between the hills of these mountains. Because these mountains are very steep and difficult to climb, they were throughout history chosen by the different empires as a central settlement area. It was easy to protect your-self in this area and the region could be better defended against attacks. One example is the Nemrut mountain with a height of 2150 metres. When the Kommagene empire ruled the region they built their temples in these mountains, and remains of these temples can still be found there.
        The highest peaks of the Malatya mountains are: Akdag: 2552 m, Dibek mountain 2549m, Tucak-mountain 2533m, Karadag 1115m, Gorduk-mountain 2206m, Nemrut-mountain 2150m, Borik-mountain 2110m, Bozdag 1200m.
Nemrut-mountain: the Nemrut mountain lies to the east of the Kahta district. For many tourists who come here it is a wonderful sight. As a result of many archaeological digs, it was established that this historical site could date from the time of the Kommagene Empire. Because of its wealth the Nemrut mountain is considered a holy place. One can also see from the summit of the Nemrut mountain at a great distance the cities of Urfa, Diyarbakir and Adiyaman.



        The Euphrates river is the most important and famous river in Adiyaman. All the rivers which rise in the southern foothills of the Malatya mountains flow into the Euphrates river. Other important rivers are the Goksu, Sofraz, Kahta, Kalburca and the Aksu. The Goksy is 150 km long and flows near the Kizil-river into the Euphrates.


        There are five lakes which lie in the west and east of the area: the Golbasi lake, Golleri-Lake, Azapli-Lake, Inekli-Lake and Sazlica-Lake.


          Summers in Adiyaman are hot and dry, winters cool and wet. As such Adıyaman’s climate is a hybrid of the mild Mediterranean and the continental climate of eastern Turkey. The effects of the large artificial lake created by the Ataturk dam are still under study. The hottest measured day in Adiyaman was on 7/20/1998 when the temperature hit 113 degrees Fahrenheit. The coldest recorded temperature was on 2/20/1998 when it got down to 26 degrees. The average annual temperature is 63 degrees, with 76 rainy days a year. On the average Adiyaman gets snow 7 days in a given year.


         The Plateau

       The southern area of Adiyaman is very hilly. The settlement area therefore is very dense here.


       The plains make 10.7% of the whole area. They are usually situated along the rivers. They lie in average between 600-700m above sea level. The most important plains are the Adiyaman and Kahta-plains.


        The plant cover in Adiyaman is a mixture of Mediterranean, Southeastern and Eastern vegetation. Higher elevations were generally covered by oak, which were for firewood. It still possible though to see oak trees in many places of the province. At lower elevations the land is covered with wild grass and plants. Haphazard farming has increased the danger of desertification of the area. In the region, which was once known as the fruit basket of the Roman Empire, the most popular products are grains and tobacco. To make room for these products many orchards and trees have been cut.

        Mineral wealth

        Geologically, the most important mineral wealth found in Adiyaman are chrome, copper and oil. In almost every district there are iron ore mines. Adiyaman is, the first largest and important region for oil. The colonialists have during the last years discovered many iron ore mines.

        Settlement areas and population density

         In the east Adiyaman borders on Diyarbakir, in the north on Malatya, in the west on Kahramanmaras, in the south on Gaziantep and Sanliurfa. Adiyaman is made up of eight districts: the city center, Besni, Celikhan, Gerger, Golbasi, Kahta, Sincik and Samsat.
        As regards the total population, Adiyaman is the smallest government district in central South-East Turkey. Because industry and the economy are little developed and the only source of livelihood is agriculture, the population density is low.  Geographical conditions play a big part in settlement areas. For example, the majority of the population has settled in water-rich areas where the soil is easy to cultivate and where there are connecting roads.


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